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Infections in children and impact on maternal pregnancy

Fetal pregnancy complications


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Hand- foot-and-mouth disease

Infectious organism

  • Coxsackie A virus

The majority of adults have already developed immunity

Symptoms

  • Vesicles and ulcers on the mouth, hands, and feet accompanied by fever
  • Affects children under 10 years old

Transmission

  • By direct contact with lesions, through respiratory droplets, and through urine and stool

Prevention

  • Wash hands
  • Avoid sharing bath towels and kitchen utensils

Pregnancy risk

  • Rare

Treatment

  • Support

Impetigo

Infectious organism

  • Staphylococcus aureus bacteria

Symptoms

  • Vesicles and ulcers: nose, mouth
  • Mostly in young children, but can affect people of all ages

Transmission

  • Very contagious on contact with lesions
  • Duration of contagion: approximately 48 hours after the start of antibiotic treatment

Prevention

  • Avoid contact with the lesions
  • Wash hands

Pregnancy risk

  • Rare

Treatment

  • Oral or topical antibiotic

Scarlet fever

Infectious organism

  • Streptococcus A bacteria

Symptoms

  • Sunburn-like rash: trunk and limbs
  • Sandpaper-like skin
  • Accompanied by a sore throat or tonsillitis, fever

Transmission

  • By direct contact with lesions on the skin, respiratory droplets and contaminated utensils

Prevention

  • Avoid contact with lesions
  • Wash hands

Pregnancy risk

  • Rare

Treatment

  • Oral antibiotic

Rubella

Infectious organism

  • Rubella virus

Symptoms

  • Rash starting on the face, then spreading to the rest of the body
  • Sometimes preceded by fever, runny nose, sore throat, conjunctivitis, and headache

Transmission

  • Via respiratory droplets from one week before the onset of the rash to one week after

Prevention

  • Childhood vaccination and boosters
  • Immunoglobulin in exposed non-immune women

Pregnancy risk

  • Risk of fetal loss and congenital rubella syndrome (heart and eye abnormalities, deafness, central nervous system damage) if infection occurs before 20 weeks

Treatment

  • Support

Roseola

Infectious organism

  • Herpes virus 6

Symptoms

  • High fever, sore throat, runny nose, cough, diarrhea, small pink spots or patches surrounded by a white ring on the trunk, back, face, neck, and arms
  • Disappears after 2 days

Transmission

  • By direct contact of the mucous membranes (mouth) and respiratory droplets

Prevention

  • Wash hands
  • Avoid sharing bath towels and kitchen utensils

Pregnancy risk

  • Rare

Treatment

  • Support

Measles

Infectious organism

  • Paramyxovirus

The majority of adults are immune, having received the MMR vaccine

Symptoms

  • Fever, runny nose, conjunctivitis, cough, photophobia, Koplik’s spots in the mouth
  • Maculopapular rash on face and neck, trunk, and extremities
  • Duration: 10 days.

Transmission

  • 1 to 4 days before the onset of symptoms until several days after the onset of the rash, through direct contact with respiratory droplets

Prevention

  • Childhood vaccination and boosters
  • Immunoglobulin in exposed non-immune women, antivirals if severe pneumonia

Pregnancy risk

  • Possible pulmonary complications in the mother, transmission to the newborn with pulmonary and neurological complications

Mumps

nfectious organism

  • Paramyxovirus family

Symptoms

  • Fever, pain, parotitis

Prevention

  • Childhood vaccination and boosters

Pregnancy risk

  • Viral meningitis in the mother, spontaneous abortion, cardiac dysfunction in the fetus (endocardial fibroelastosis)

Treatment

  • Support
Page by

Chantal Larcher, inf. clinicienne et Dre Lucie Morin

About this page
Updated on 1/25/2021
Created on 1/25/2021
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